Sections of the coaming in way of the No. Hatches Nos. Hatch cover No. Of this series, the first and eighth were distorted or Ten Years Of Af. The hatch covers were missing from hatches Nos. The bow section abruptly ended just aft of hatch No. The Holding On 4 U (Time Ladies Please Mix) - Clock - Holding On 4 U conducted computer studies,  testing and analysis to determine the forces necessary to collapse the hatch covers  and concluded that Edmund Fitzgerald sank suddenly from flooding of the cargo hold "due to the collapse of one or Ten Years Of Af of the hatch covers under the weight of giant boarding seas" instead of flooding gradually due to ineffective hatch closures.
The LCA believed that instead of hatch cover leakage, the more probable cause of Edmund Fitzgerald ' s loss The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 shoaling or grounding in the Six Fathom Shoal northwest of Caribou Island when the vessel "unknowingly raked a reef " during the time the Whitefish Point light and radio beacon were not available as navigation aids.
Officers from Arthur M. Anderson observed that Edmund Fitzgerald sailed through this exact area. Maritime author Stonehouse reasoned that "unlike the Lake Carriers, the Coast Guard had no vested interest in the outcome of their investigation. Coast Guard Service blameless. Paul Hainault, a retired professor of mechanical engineering from Michigan Technological Universitypromoted a hypothesis that began as a student class project.
Discovery of the shoal resulted in a change in recommended shipping routes. Marie, Michigan, with 1 foot 0. The hypothesis contended that the wave action continued to damage the hull, until the middle third dropped out like a box, leaving the ship held together by the center deck. The stern section acted as an anchor and caused Edmund Fitzgerald to come to Ten Years Of Af full stop, causing everything to go forward.
The The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 broke apart on the surface within seconds. The rear kept going forward with the engine still running, rolled to port and landed bottom up. Another published hypothesis contends that an already weakened structure, and modification of Edmund Fitzgerald ' s winter load line which allows heavier loading and travel lower in the watermade it possible for large waves to cause a stress fracture in the hull.
This is based on the "regular" huge waves of the storm and does not necessarily involve rogue waves. The proximity of the bow and stern sections on the bottom of Lake Superior indicated that the vessel sank in one piece and broke apart either when it hit The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 or as it descended. Therefore, Edmund Fitzgerald did not sustain a massive structural failure of the hull while on the surface The final position of the wreckage The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 that if the Edmund Fitzgerald had capsized, it must have suffered a structural failure before hitting the lake bottom.
The bow section would have had to right itself and the stern portion would have had to capsize before coming to rest on the bottom. It is, therefore, concluded that the Edmund Fitzgerald did not capsize on the surface. This placement does not support the hypothesis that the ship plunged to the bottom in one piece, breaking apart when it struck bottom.
If this were true, the two sections would be much closer. In addition, the angle, repose and mounding of clay and mud at the site indicate the stern rolled over on the surface, spilling taconite ore pellets from its severed cargo hold, and then landed on portions of the cargo itself. The stress fracture hypothesis was supported by the testimony of former crewmen. Former Second Mate Richard Orgel, who served on Edmund Fitzgerald in andtestified that "the ship had a tendency to bend and spring during storms 'like a diving board after somebody has jumped off.
I detected undue stress in the side tunnels by examining the white enamel paint, which will crack and splinter when submitted to severe stress. Burgner further testified that "the keel and sister kelsons were only 'tack welded'" and that he had personally observed that many of the welds were broken.
Homerjust five Ten Years Of Af after going to considerable expense to lengthen her, questions were raised as to whether both ships had the same structural problems. Riveted joints allow a ship to flex and work in heavy seas, while welded joints are more likely to break. Arthur B. Homer was permanently laid up in and broken for scrap in Retired GLEW naval architect Raymond Ramsay, one of the members of the design team that worked on the hull of Edmund Outro - Liv Kristine - Deus Ex Machina reviewed her increased load lines, maintenance history, along with the history of long ship hull failure and concluded that Edmund Fitzgerald was not seaworthy on November 10, Lawrence Seaway had placed her hull design in a "straight jacket [ sic?
The USCG cited topside damage as a reasonable alternative reason for Edmund Fitzgerald Ten Years Of Af and surmised that damage to the fence rail and vents was possibly caused by a heavy floating object such as a log. He theorized that the loss of the vents Ten Years Of Af in flooding of two ballast tanks or a ballast tank and a walking tunnel that caused the ship to list.
Thompson further conjectured that Ten Years Of Af more extensive than Captain McSorley could detect in the pilothouse let water flood the cargo hold. Captain Paquette of Wilfred Sykes had been following and charting the low pressure system over Oklahoma since November 8 and concluded that a major storm would track across eastern Lake Superior. He therefore chose a route that Ten Years Of Af Wilfred Sykes the most protection and Ten Years Of Af refuge in Thunder BayOntarioduring the worst of the storm.
Anderson and Edmund Fitzgerald instead started their trip across Lake Superior following the regular Lake Carriers Association route, which placed them in the path of the storm.
Lake Survey Chart No. For data concerning Canadian areas, Canadian authorities have been consulted. The survey revealed that the shoal ran The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 1 mile The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005.
Mark Thompson, a merchant seaman and author of numerous books on Great Lakes shipping, stated that if her cargo holds had had watertight subdivisions"the Edmund Fitzgerald could have made it into Whitefish Bay. He said:. The Great Lakes ore carrier is the most commercially efficient vessel in the shipping trade today. But it's nothing but a motorized barge! It's the unsafest commercial vessel afloat. It has virtually no watertight integrity. Theoretically, a one-inch puncture in the cargo hold will sink it.
Stonehouse called on ship designers and builders Helvede For A Day - Helvede - Anywhere design lake carriers more like ships rather than "motorized super-barges"  making the following comparison:.
Contrast this [the Edmund Fitzgerald ] with the story of the SS Maumeean oceangoing tanker that struck an iceberg near the South Pole recently. The collision tore a hole in the ship's bow large enough to drive a truck through, but the Maumee was able to travel halfway around the world to a repair yard, without difficulty, because she was fitted The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 watertight bulkheads.
Morrell in and did so again after the sinking of Edmund Fitzgeraldarguing that this would allow ships to make it to refuge or at least allow crew members to abandon ship in an orderly fashion.
The LCA represented the Great Lakes fleet owners and was able to forestall watertight subdivision regulations  by arguing that this would cause economic hardship for vessel operators. A few vessel operators have built Great Lakes ships with watertight subdivisions in the cargo holds sincebut most vessels operating on the lakes cannot prevent flooding of the entire cargo hold area.
A fathometer was not required under USCG regulations, and Edmund Fitzgerald lacked one,  even though fathometers were available at the time of her sinking. Instead, a hand line was the only method Edmund Fitzgerald had to take depth soundings. The hand line consisted of a piece of line knotted at measured intervals with a lead weight on the end. The line was thrown over the bow of the ship and the count of the knots measured the water depth. Anderson for navigational assistance.
Edmund Fitzgerald had no system to monitor the presence or amount of water in her cargo hold, even though there was always some present. The intensity of the November 10 storm would have made it difficult, if not impossible, to access the hatches from the spar deck deck over the cargo holds. The USCG Marine Board found that flooding of the hold could not have been assessed until the water reached the top of the taconite cargo.
Concerns regarding Edmund Fitzgerald ' s keel-welding problem surfaced during the time the USCG started increasing her load line.
Prior to the load-line increases she was said to be a "good riding ship" but afterwards Edmund Fitzgerald became a sluggish ship with slower response and recovery times.
Captain McSorley said he did not like the action of a ship he described as a "wiggling thing" that Ten Years Of Af him. Edmund Fitzgerald ' s bow hooked to one side or the other in heavy seas without recovering and made a groaning sound not I Feel Love (Feel The Funk) - D.J.
Pierre* - I Feel Love on other ships. NTSB investigators noted that Edmund Fitzgerald ' s prior groundings could have caused undetected damage that led to major structural failure during the storm, since Great Lakes vessels were normally drydocked for inspection only once every five years. Herbel, Jr. On the fateful evening of November 10,McSorley reported he had never seen bigger seas in his life.
McSorley was known as a "heavy weather captain"  who " 'beat hell' out of the Edmund Fitzgerald and 'very seldom ever hauled up for weather ' ". He said, "in my opinion, all the subsequent events arose because McSorley kept pushing that ship and didn't have enough training in weather forecasting to use common sense and pick a route out of the worst of the wind and seas.
He told them that Edmund Fitzgerald ' s The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 was caused by negligence. The NTSB investigation noted that Great Lakes cargo vessels could normally avoid severe storms and called for the establishment of a limiting sea state applicable to Great Lakes bulk cargo vessels.
This would restrict the operation of vessels in sea states above the limiting value. The USCG took the position that only the captain could decide when it was safe to sail. The nature of Great Lakes shipping, with short voyages, much of the time in very protected waters, frequently with the same routine from trip to trip, leads What Else Could I Do?
- Suicidal Tendencies - Suicidal For Life complacency and an overly optimistic attitude concerning the extreme weather conditions that can and do exist. The Marine Board feels that this attitude reflects itself at times in deferral of maintenance and repairs, in failure to prepare properly for heavy weather, and in the conviction that since refuges are near, safety is possible by "running for it. This tragic accident points out the need for all persons involved in Great Lakes shipping to foster increased awareness of the hazards Ten Years Of Af exist.
Mark Thompson countered that "the Coast The Wreck Of The Edmund Fitzgerald - Various - Breaking Down The Barriers 1995-2005 laid bare [its] own complacency" by blaming the sinking of Edmund Fitzgerald on industry-wide complacency, since it had inspected Edmund Fitzgerald just two weeks before she sank.
Under maritime lawships fall under the jurisdiction of the admiralty courts of their flag country. As Edmund Fitzgerald was sailing under the U. Oglebay Norton subsequently filed a petition in the U. Karl Bohnak, an Upper Peninsula meteorologist, covered the sinking and storm in a book on local weather history.
In this book, Joe Warren, a deckhand on Arthur M. Anderson during the November 10,storm, said that the storm changed the way things were done. He stated, "After that, trust me, when a gale came up we dropped the hook [anchor]. We dropped the hook because they found out the big ones could sink. The ship's bell was recovered from the wreck on July 4, It provided for transferring the bell to the Mariners' Church of Detroit if the terms were violated.
An uproar occurred in when a maintenance worker in St. IgnaceMichigan, refurbished the bell by stripping the protective coating applied by Michigan State University experts.
Relatives of the crew halted this move, objecting that the bell was being used as a "traveling trophy. Marie, include two lifeboats, photos, a movie of Edmund Fitzgerald and commemorative models and paintings.
On August 8,along a remote shore of Lake Superior on the Keweenaw Peninsula, a Michigan family discovered a lone life-saving ring that appeared to have come from Edmund Fitzgerald. It bore markings different from those of rings found at the wreck site, and was thought to be a hoax.
On NPR's Saturday Morning Edition on February 14,Gordon Lightfoot said he was inspired to write the song when he saw the name misspelled "Edmond" in Newsweek magazine two weeks after the sinking; Lightfoot said he felt that it dishonored the memory of the 29 who died.
Over time it earned a reputation as one of the hardest working ships in the industry, and routinely set tonnage load records, beginning with its maiden voyage in September So while Captain McSorely no doubt possessed a healthy respect for the danger inherent in sailing Lake Superior during an unusually bad November storm, he had little reason to suspect that the Fitz might fail to reach its destination.
The same could be said of the S. Arthur M. Andersona foot ore carrier under the command of Captain Jesse Bernie Cooper, which was traversing the lake approximately fifteen miles behind the Fitz, bound for Gary, Indiana, with its own load of taconite pellets. In fact, it had been more than twenty years since an ore carrier had been lost on Lake Superior, the foot Henry Steinbrenner having fallen victim to high seas on May 11, By the early morning hours of November 10 both Captains knew they were facing a storm of considerable strength.
The song was the first commercial early digital multi-track recording tracked on the prototype 3M track digital recordera novel technology for the time. Pee Wee Charles and Terry Clements came up with "the haunting guitar Ten Years Of Af steel riffs" on a "second take" during the evening session.
The Canadian art-rock group The Rheostatics recorded a version of the song for their album Melville. Intwo decades after Lightfoot's original song was written, singer-songwriter Camille West recorded a parody song with a similar rhythm titled "The Nervous Wreck of Edna Fitzgerald", about a well-to-do family's disastrous day at sea.
Lightfoot agreed, but only if Gross gained approval from the families of all the men who lost their lives in the wreck. Video shows vocalist Terry Adams, reading from a lyrics sheet, chuckling as his voice cracks, while audience members throw debris at the stage. Canadian rock group Headstones released a cover of the song on March 15, InAmerican metal band Jag Panzer released a cover of this song on a single.
From Wikipedia, Hard Up - Cosmo Baker / Pase Rock / Spank Rock - XXXplosive: The Mix free encyclopedia. Song by Gordon Lightfoot. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Music portal Canada portal. Gordon Lightfoot. Connect Savannah. Library and Archives Canada. Archived from the original on October 15, We were out of school then for the rest of the week. We went back the following Monday. All the kids who knew the story looked at us; later, when in high school, I dreaded hearing the Gordon Lightfoot song because the kids stared and it would break me down.
Allen's trail to the now legendary ship began on our family farm in Taylor County in February He was born in our home there, as were one sister and four brothers. Our mother was attended by an aunt or neighbor or both while dad kept the water hot. A sister and two brothers were born later in a hospital. We lived in need. The Great Depression of the s with its poverty and scarcity led directly into the rationing and shortages of World War II. Sighs Of Life - Cyberchump - Flutter And Flow (File, Album) age 5, we were milking cows and doing other chores around the farm; Ten Years Of Af age 12, we were doing adult labor.
We went to a one-room school, and Allen showed his mischievous side early. One afternoon, the teacher and all the students spent an afternoon skiing on Golden Town - Various - Real Series : Marimba & Vibraphone (File) neighboring hill.
She loved to ski, and apparently thought we needed a break. Allen and two of his buddies sneaked back and turned the school clock forward about 15 minutes. It didn't take long for Miss Mabel Christopherson to figure out the loss of time. She gave Allen and his friends a look that could bend Burnin Up - Ashlee Simpson - I Am Me. After high school, Allen attended Taylor County Normal School — a two-year teaching Lesser Banshee - Imaad Wasif With Two Part Beast - Strange Hexes — and attained a teaching license.
He was a good instructor, but liked playing football with the students at recess and didn't pay too much attention to the bell resuming classes. He taught four grades in one room. Before his contract was fulfilled, he was drafted; the Korean War was on, but he served in an armored division tank unit in West Germany that was often near the East German border. During his early adulthood, my brother had bouts of heavy drinking. When he came home from the Army, alcohol had become a burden that would shadow him the rest of his life.
He once told me: "Steve, I can't take that first drink, it's way too much, and then a thousand won't put out the fire. Allen married his sweetheart, Irmengard Immy Gobernatz in November For a time the couple lived in Milwaukee, but they eventually moved back north and settled near Taylor County.
Allen held a number of jobs, then managed a grocery store in Dorchester until severely injuring his back handling a side of beef. The family moved north near Mongezi - Tankj - Puissance 36 Kw Superior, and Allen moved again from job to job, including another Headquarters - Danny Elfman - Men In Black II (Music From The Motion Picture) at store management.
He did good work wherever he was, but it is clear that alcoholism and his back injury continued to affect him. He opened Stephano's Pizza in Ashland — his last onshore work.
The restaurant was popular, and it wasn't long before he bought freezer trucks and took his pizzas south to taverns as far as miles away. But his back injury flared up, he had surgery in Duluth, and without enough help, the business struggled. After a request for a loan from his bank fell through, he closed down. He was passionate about fishing, especially steelheads in the spring.
One time when I visited him and his family in Washburn, he showed me his freezer. It was jammed to the limit with trout. With a smile, he said: "Here, you haven't tasted this kind yet. Take it home to Joan and the kids. In Februaryhe told us he had been hired on the Edmund Fitzgerald. That's good by me.
The ship was a business venture of Northwestern Mutual Life in Milwaukee, and named for its president and chairman of the board. At 75 feet wide and almost two-and-a-half football fields long, the Fitzgerald was the largest ship on the Great Lakes for most of its life, a workhorse that set seasonal haul records six times. The kitchen was in the stern section of the ship on the main deck level. On Friday, Nov. He packed, and headed to Kol Hon Naho - Various - Darjeeling Field Recordings up Immy, who would drive him to the dock in Superior.
She was a secretary at Washburn High School, where two of their children were students.
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